Remembering the Great Rajput warrior, Maharana Pratap of Mewar on his Birth Anniversary . His courage, self-sacrifice & valour will live on forever.
A Great warrior who never surrendered to Mughal Emperor Akbar, at the time when almost all the kings in India surrendered to him, but MahaRana Pratap stood alone against Akbar and fought bravely.
Maharana Pratap was born on May 9, 1540 at Kumbhalgarh near Udaipur. His birthday is celebrated on 28th May 2017 according to Tritiya Tithi.
Know about King Maharana Pratap of Mewar…
The battle of Haldighati was fought between Mughal Emperor Akbar and Maharana Pratap on June 18, 1576 AD. This battle between Akbar and Maharana Pratap proved to be devastating like the Mahabharata war.
It is believed that neither Akbar could win the battle of Haldighati nor did Rana lose. If the military had more power in the Mughals, then Rana Pratap had no lack of belligerent power.
Maharana Pratap’s spear was weighing 81 kg and his chest cover was 72 kg. His spear, armor, shield, and two swords together, weighed 208 kg.
In the battle of Haldi valley Maharana Pratap had only 20,000 soldiers and Akbar had 85,000 soldiers. Despite this, Maharana Pratap did not give up and kept fighting for independence.
It is said that Akbar had sent 6 peace envoys to explain Maharana Pratap, which could end the war peacefully, but Maharana Pratap rejected his proposal every time saying this saying that the Rajput warrior will never tolerate it can not do.
Maharana Pratap had a total of 11 marriages in his life. It is said that they had all these marriages for political reasons.
Maharana Pratap was called in the name of Kika in childhood.
Maharana Pratap’s most beloved horse was Chetak. Like the Maharana Pratap, his horse Chetak was also very brave.
It is said that when the Mughal army was behind them during the war, Chetak had crossed the feet of a few feet long by sitting on his back, Maharana Pratap. Today also the remains of Chetak in Chittoor’s Haldi valley.
In the Battle of Haldighati, there was only one Muslim commander on behalf of Maharana Pratap – Hakim Khan Suri.
Maharana Pratap who fought till the last breath to save Mewar, rejecting the offer of running Raj in Mewar 6 times, assuming Akbar as the king. They did not accept the rule of any ‘foreign’.
His faithful horse Chetak was killed due to severe injuries in the battle of Haldighati. But this Shahadat gave him a lot of prominence.
Maharana Pratap had 17 sons and 5 daughters. Amar Singh, born of the queen Ajabhade, became his successor.
His own son betrayed and handed over to Mewar Akbar after the death of Maharana Pratap.
There are many people who complain of being used and trust the wrong and Fake people and end up being depressed or keep on complaining. Do really complaining makes or gives any change?
We live in a corporate world where people use each other and find people who are benefitary for them. True friendship, True love is very difficult to find and to get now a days.
Loving yourself when no one is there to love you,is one of the bravest thing.
We scream and talk about issues but the result of it will always remain the same without any changes or differences.
Do not waste your time on someone who only wants you around when it fits their needs.
We can’t expect the world to be as how we need or want. Everything in this world and persons have multiple faces. Where we are, has a good as well as bad things. It is upon an individual and his area of interest whether to focus and concentrate on Bad or on good things.
Enjoy your own company than expecting someone to make you happy.
We stay in a society where mentality of people cannot be blammed. Everyone have their own choice of living and attitude. If you are being disturbed or hate anyone’s way of lifestyle and attitude,the dust is in your eyes and problem is in your mentality not with those who you hate.
Karma’s law is very simple. Do good to happen good with you. Life is also very simple like karma.It’s us who make our life very complicated like extra marital affairs, relationships etc.
If a man gives you Loyalty, treat him like Royalty.
Every problem has a solution. We have to dig to find the solution. It may take time but you will find it, because good things are always hidden and its difficult to find it.
98% of your problems would be solved if you stopped overthinking things and calmed the fuck down.
A problem to a person starts when he takes his success or achievements to his head instead of keeping it low key. Ego,jealous and being high headed kills a person.
“Worrying is stupid.Its like walking around with an umbrella waiting for it to rain”- Wiz Khalifa
To lead a happy life burn your ego,jealousness and arrogance and start loving what you do and be proud of what you have. Ignore and never bother of what disturbes you. Never expect anything from others. Do it all by your own because you are the king of your own universe and your life, your way.
“Wrong People will distract you and Right people will Motivate you”
There are two types of people in this world as you all might know, Real people and Fake people.
As commonly mentioned like Real people as genuine, helping, caring, adorable, humbled,sensitive etc and fake people as cheaters, liers, frauds, cunning etc. I would like to mention them in a very practical way, real people are those who are straight forward with their hands kept clean and help others without having any expectations from them and keep true friendship/relationship with others from their heart without looking for their own benefit. Fake people are those who talk back of you keeping a fake smile in front of you. They keep relations just for their own benefit or to destroy you. Don’t let fake people to ruin or disturb your life. Ignore fake people to have a peacefull and happy life.
Forget the things that make you sad and remember the things that make you happy.
You have a special place in the world. All you have to do is find it. Do not give up on yourself, on the truths you have realized. Do not give in to those who would crush your dreams like nutshells. And never turn away from forever love.
Sometimes you have to leave not for Ego but for Self respect
Let go of all your frustrations and past worst experiences. Nothing is more valuable than your life, self respect and dignity. Live with pride and worries burried. Respect people who respects you or walk away from their life. Never allow anyone to degrade, understimate you or you do to others. If you are being molested you should have the courage and its your right to fight back. Be yourself, People don’t have to like you and you don’t have to care.
According to law, Everybody are equal and have equal benefits in this world, though the color of skin varies but the blood in everybody’s body is same and equally flown.. But unfortunately because of some haters and anti social elements showing their racial discriminating attitude and degrading, underestimating people who are lower to them or of other caste or religion- Polute the peace, beauty of our society and mankind.
Ignoring these type of antisocial, racist elements and by not letting their cheap behavior getting into your head and by not getting disturbed and without responding them once you are betrayed, you can have a better life without stressing more.
Care less you will be less stressed.
Life will be easier and peacefull when you identify the right people before you give them space in your heart.
We may love the wrong person, cry for the wrong reason,but one thing is for sure, mistakes help us to find the right person.
Stay Positive even when it feels like your whole world is falling apart.
“The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering the attitudes of his mind.”
Some people change themselves after having worst experience or situations in their life.Even some youngsters who are with bad companions change themselves and get addicted to their behaviour and lifestyle.If that youngster is the real person he will be changed to fake person becouse of his bad compinions and surroundings. Note one thing never change yourself for others or even after your worst experiences or situations. Stay strong and try to face your problems. Failure is a stepping stone to success. Never be afraid of failures or bother about what people will talk about us. When you fail you learn from the mistakes you made and it motivates you to work even harder.
Positive thinking will let you do everything better than negative thinking will
Everything will come to you at the right time. Be patient and trust the process.
One should know to self control himself and his emotions. If a teetotaller is surrounded by 10 persons smoking and drinking alcohol in a party, it dosent mean that he should also smoke and drink just to maintain his social status and reputation in a fear of getting mocked by them just because he is a teetotaller.
Don’t follow the crowd; Stay true to Yourself
Life has many different chapters of story. One bad chapter dosen’t mean it’s the end of the book.Read whole book to take good chapters.
A bad attitude can literally block Love, Blessings,and distiny from finding you. Don’t be the reason you don’t succeed.
Author of Secrets of The Millionaire Mind, T. Harv Eker, suggested that the secret to success isn’t balance — it’s knowing who you are.
4 simple rules:
Wake up early.
Work harder than you think you did yesterday.
Never go more than 3 days without exercise.
Make time to read every single day.
There is no right or wrong way. But by knowing how you work and think, you can become more successful, more productive — and a lot happier.
Do what you love and chase your passions, Money will come finding you
“To give due focus and quality attention to all areas of life, you have to decide what kind of person you are.”
Three types of people to surround yourself with:
No matter how you feel. Get up, dress up, Show up and never give up.
Your independent is your gift,Utilise it carefully rather than misusing it.The value of it is not known until we are dependent.
Worry less, smile more. Don’t regret just learn and grow. Remove anything that gives you a negative vibe and watch how your life shifts.
Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it. Keep motivating and encouraging.
Always remember, Challenges makes you more responsible.The life without struggle is a life without success.Don’t give up and learn not to quit.
Being a writer is not less than an artist. He/she has to learn, experience,feel, work on it before writing on a subject he/she desires. -RPB-
This article is Written based on Writer’s thoughts.
When Vinayaka Mudaliar (who was an ardent believer in Hinduism and a carpenter in the Nawab’s court) visited Thanjavur Palace, he was gifted by King Serfoji ll his signatured Portrait (now the signature is not seen in that portrait) after Mudaliar’s request. Mudaliar liked to collect paintings, dolls from the places he visit. To mark his visit to Thanjavur Palace and his meet with H.H King Serfoji ll, he requested The Rajah of Tanjore to present him his portrait.
Antique Portrait of Thanjavur Maratha King Serfoji ll (seen in the picture) is well preserved and displayed for visitors at Vyasarpadi Vinayaga Mudaliar Charity, Mylapore on south side of Kapaleshwara Temple which holds as an Art gallery once in a year at the month of March/April. This house of Vinayaka Mudaliar (who lived between 1803 and 1869, was a carpenter in the Nawab’s court) now a choultry and marriage hall transforms into art gallery during Panguni (Kapaleshwara Temple) Festival.
The art gallery gets lot of visitors and is crowded till it is closed because of Kapaleshwara temple car/Panguni festival (10 days) at Mylapore.
The saddest thing is that- many who visit this art gallery are totally not aware or know whose antique portraits are these displayed there, including the caretakers who are incharge to look after the art gallery.
There are 150 years old paintings of famous kings named Swati Thirunal of Travancore, King Serfoji ll (seen in the pic), Muslim kings maybe Akbar or Tippu Sultan. Each expensive paintings of every personalities displayed there has its own history and story of how it came to this house, but the history or the name of the kings in the painting are not existed or displayed for the visitors, which results for visitors to turn back blindly after visiting such noteworthy place.
Every year when i visit this art gallery, I intentionally ask the name of the king in the portraits available there and their history to the caretakers or few visitors just to check the knowledge of our people related to Tamilnadu’s historical past and antiquity etc and the answers which i listen will displease me and sometimes shock me.
Yesterday when i visited this art gallery- i decided and made myself not to open my mouth until I visit and go out of this gallery and with sparkling eyes and admiration, when i was looking at my great great grandfather’s portrait…. one middle aged man asked me about the portrait- “Ithe patha rombo paleya kaaluku oviyam mathari theriyadu” (it looks like a very old painting).
I replied Aama, ethu 150+ varusam paleya oviyam.. (yes, it is 150+ years old portrait)
He: Adengappa!!! Avaru yaaru?? (wow!! Who is he??)
Me: Thanjavur Raja (Tanjore King)
He: kelvi pathade elliye, Thanjavur le Raja va?? (didn’t heared about it, Rajah in Thanjavur???)
Me: said about King Serfoji’s history
He (after listening to the history) :avar epaer patta aalu, enake avar kaal le velanum pola thonadu. Nenga yavalavu therunji vechikuringle, neenga history student aa?? (what a man he is, I feel to seek his blessings. You are knowing that much of things are you a student of history?)
Me: with a pleasing smile replied ‘aama’ (yes)
That man might be thrilled and shocked if he came to know that i am his 6th descendent, but i didn’t reveal to him.
When I asked one caretaker to confirm one of the names of Muslim king in the portrait, he just replied “therileye Thambi, Rombo varusama enge thaan euruku” (I don’t know brother, it is here for many years).
Mylapore is a place which is well known for Kapaleshwara temple, Sai Baba temple and Luz church apart from such divined places there are also many unassuming heritage places including Ramakrishna mutt,house of Vinayaga Mudaliyar even the locals there are not aware of it or its history. Steps have to be taken to remember those eminent personalities and heritage buildings and spread the knowledge about these to maximum people including the locals who are surviving there for their daily wages and locals who resides there.
The house of Vysarpadi Vinayaka Mudaliar now known as “Bommai Chathiram“, houses a collection of antique paintings and hand-crafted dolls which are priceless, rare, and are of historic value. Exhibited only during the course of 10 days temple festival, the items are later locked up and kept away from the view of the public. The paintings were the private collections of Vysarpadi Vinayaka Mudaliar, who was an ardent believer in Hinduism and wanted to spread it. It is documented that nearly 70 poets sang in praise of him including Tamil Thatha Dr. Swaminatha Iyer. During his time, while the Panguni festival was on, Mudaliar exhibited his collection of paintings depicting Hindu gods and goddesses. Mudaliar was as a carpenter in the Nawab’s court. Impressed by his workmanship, the Nawab showered him with gifts, with which he bought this place next to the Kapaleeshwarar Temple.
According to his Will, he desired that after his death the place be used for giving ‘annadanam’ during the Dwadasi days of the Tamil month, and opening a religious art gallery during Panguni Festival to promote Hinduism. On other days, it was to serve as a marriage hall.
Maharajah Serfoji ll was fond of hunting and frequently he went on shooting trips.He bagged tigers, deers, boars and birds.He had a number of muskets and guns in his personal armoury brought from Europe.He maintained a half a dozen reserved forests where he went for shikar (hunting). The records show that he shot a number of tigers in the vicinity of Thanjavur and the population gave him enthusiastic orations on his return with the trophies. All his reserved forests were under the control of watchman and supervised by the head of each forest to prevent poaching and unauthorised hunting. He had also a few hunting cheetas trained for hunting deers and boars. The cheetas or leapards were trained in stalking, so that the deer can be caught alive.
He also reared a number of falcons (baj pakshi) which were also trained in hawking smaller games like rabbit, iguana, and birds. He adorned the cheetas and falcons with gold collars and anklets of the legs. Trainers and attenders were appointed to look after them. In order to treat them for illness,he caused arabic and urdu works yujanamah (for cheetas) and bajnamah (for falcons) were translated into marathi for his use.it was recorded that his favouriter falcon was brought from the nawab of devagiri by bhujanga rao, hari rao, his courtier. falcon was a favourite pastime for the kings and nobles of those times. He held competitions and many times he invited european dignitaries and the Thondaman Rajah of pudukottai to witness his cheeta’s and falcon’s hunt.
He also encouraged bullock cart racing and several members of public participated in the competition.The race was known than as ‘Rekhlaw race’ he also got a treatise written on the art of rekhlaw competition called “Hehatula Tumani” in marathi which prescribed rules for the same with details on training and usage during the actual competition. There were many works on presciptions to treat the illness of racing bullocks.
One of his another hobbies was gardening. He developed the Shivaganga garden by planting several kinds of trees imported from Europe and some huge trees can be seen in his garden even today. He brought flower and fruit seeds during his wide travels and used them to enrich his gardens. His two other gardens are Huzur mahal and Dastan mahal gardens which were adjacent to his palace and mostly used by the Rajah’s family. There were ponds in the garden stocked with multi coloured fishes. king serfoji ll also authored a book on horticulture espeically on grafting and the usage of fertilizers and soil maintenance.
His another hobby was collection of old curious and scientific and usefull articles of western countries which were not available in Thanjavur. He collected various first edition books in English and other European languages which were printed at that time. He requisitioned such books as soon as they were published in Europe and got them shipped.
Lord valentia visited thanjavur on 29th january 1804. He records in his account of travel that he visited Rajah serfoji and saw his library, his private museum, musical instruments, and other valuable articles kept in his palace. He says that Serfoji had one octogonal carriage with exquisitely carved windows with an organ that played sweet musical noted as the wheel went round with a clock and a machine to mark the distance travelled (speedometer). He had also assortment of many viz; an electrifying machine, air pump, astronomical instruments, arrow work, guns of different bores,gold and silver encrushed tables, desk and almirahs inlaid with silver and gold a rare valampuri chunk (conch) of big size, watches, and rare clocks,western musical instruments.velvets from italy, razor and pomades from England, costly almirah and Arab swords,rare paintings, cut glass chandeliers and hallmark silver candle stick. Similarly Lord Bishop Heber, Buchanar, Bishop Middleton have also recorded about Serfoji’s museum and two skeltons, one of bone and the other of ivory.
Rajah serfoji ll’s another hobby was painting. He painted several pictures and views of buildings.He painted 18 caste people, in uniforms of several military ranks from sepoy to the commander in chief and palanquins and sedan chairs, falcons etc.
Serfoji ll Maharajah was a good wrestler. He learnt wrestling during his boyhood and continued the same physical exercise when he was at madras, until his coronation in Thanjavur. He patronised fencing and archery. Similarly he encouraged silambam (fight with sticks) an ancient martial art of tamilnadu usefull for defence purposes.
Sadar Mahal Palace was built by Maharajah Serfoji ll in 1824 A.D which was his residential Palace.
Raja serfoji ll passed away on 8th March 1832. The sad demise of the noble king was reported by the acting resident J. Blackburn to the secretary to the government at fort St. George. A true extract of the letter is produced below, which will indicate the high esteem in which he was held by his subjects.
“The Right Honorable The Governor will be much grieved to be informed His Highness Maharaj Serfoji is no more.
His decease took place at 4 a.m yesterday morning and his life had been despaired of for 18 hours previous to the final dissolution.
The ceremonies prior to the removal of the body in procession then commenced and by 6 p.m. The corpse was consumed in sight of an assembled multitude of little short of 90,000 persons; and I endeavoured that every possible honour should be paid on the part of the British government.
During the protracted and varying state of His Highness’s illness I passed much of my time in the palace as did also Mr. Assistant Surgeon Bill and Mr.Acting Superintendent Surgeon Currie, and I cannot resist bearing my testimony to the firmness, perfect resignation and cheerfulness with which his highness bore it throughout. The time carried attendance, soliciture, and care of some of his highness’s relations, principal officers and servants was such as to impress me with the highest respect for the kindness of heart and social qualities that could have called them forth is so eminent a degree. The testimony of deep respect and regret shown towards the corpse on the whole line of the procession by all rank of people, two thirds of whom must have been in the intimate knowledge of his behavior,to and government of, his subjects goes far to prove the moderation the equity and liberality of his rule over them. In some countries of Europe I have witnessed similar scenes but never Did I witness over where the expressions of regret were so touching or apparently so sincere, it seemed as the whole community were deprived of their common father and friend.
Our common feeling of sorrow seemed to pervade the whole,and I am assured that the whole population of the fort in number about 25,000 abstained from good the whole day, and that upwards 30,000 persons again attended his highness Shivaji when he returned to collect the ashes of his father this morning.
It will be proper to bring to the observation of the right honorable the governor, that the fact of the queens having been dissuaded from ascending the funeral Pyle of her husband will have most effectually and entirely broken the practice of this place such as permission can now never again be given from the palace.
May I request the favour of you to procure me the orders of the Government for the installation of his highness the Raja Shivaji ll.
May I request you also to bring to the right honorable the governor’s notice the extract from the general letter of the court of directors under date January 12th 1831, contained in yours of the 1st November 1831 directing the discontinuance of the office of resident in the demise of his highness the late Maharaja and with reference to the subsequent recommendation of the government for the continuance of the office and procure me his commands”
Maharaja Serfoji ll was believed to be a connoisseur of food and expert epicurean. He had collected some old works on English cuisine. Few of his collections of European kitchen can still be seen in his assemblies. The Modi records reveal that Serfoji maintained three kinds of kitchen – one purely non vegetarian (Marathi type), Brahminical Kitchen (Vegetarian type) and Angriji (English kitchen) where European style of delicacies were cooked.Non-vegetarian or Marathi Kitchen mostly prepared meat dishes of exquisite and temping to the palate of the most discriminating connoisseurs of food. This section of Marathi kitchen prepared rarest food items unknown in Maharashtra state and of purely belonging to Thanjavuri roots. Thanjavur Maratha rulers had not only encouraged culture, fine arts, literature during their reign but also food habits.
It will be very significant and pertinent to record that Marathi type of food of Thanjavur should not be confused with the typical food cuisine followed in Maharashtra. Their preparation has no bearing on Thanjavur Marathi food and is of the south Indian Tamil type and belongs to south. The food preparation of Maharashtra is entirely different from that of the south Indian one. The people of Maharashtra never use tamarind for sour taste like the Marathas of south; particularly that of Thanjavur. The two systems of food basically differ in taste and method of preparation. TheTanjoreMarathas; at the time of their rule invited several kinds of victuals and gave them names also, the counter part of which cannot be found in Maharashtra state. Even today the people of those regions like and praise Thanjavur non vegetarian dishes. At least some similarity can be found between Thanjavur and Mughlai Preparations. The food prepared in the Rajah’s kitchen are of pure Tamilnadu origin except in their names but are the products of Tamilnadu cooks, and in their recipes tamarind pulp is generally mixed. The ingenuity and inventive talents of the south IndianMaratha cooks those were in the service of the Maratha raja’s since several centuries. This has resulted in a new and special type of food preparation which has come to be as Maratha preparations. South India is fully aware of the Maratha military hotels that were in existence in large number over the south in 1960’s. They are now fast disappearing due to abandonment of such hotels by the Marathas. The hoteliers of today have gradually forgotten the old methods of food preparation. Therefore, to recollect our old tradition culture of food, we have decided to post the Thanjavur Maratha royal recipes with the method of Preparation for everyone. The posts on our Facebook page and blogger will greatly help in resuscitating and recollect old Maratha recipes to the people. Rajah Serfoji in addition to his 3 kinds of kitchen (Marathi, Brahmani and Angreji) maintained Sherbatkhana, ObdharKhana, ThattiMahalKhana (Sherbat, water and milk departments).The store rooms are called Kottiyam, where grains, groceries, oil and condiments are stored. They contained the choicest and unadulterated stuffs. Apart from fine and tasty food production, care was taken to clamp strict control over the purity of food and ingredients. Strict Vigil was maintained in water supply of the rajah in his obdharkhana and Dowlathmahal and Krishna Vilas Tank (Inside the Palace) departments, whose officers were supervising water and Sherbath. In English kitchen Venkatasami was employed as a Buttler to the Rajah in the year 1825 and his preparation in the shape of Jellies, Puffs, Stuffings, Broth, Sauces of vegetable and Mutton are recorded in great detail. Delicious fish and egg Preparation like Omelets, Pickles and similar recipes are recorded. According to Hindu Beliefs there are 6 kinds of tastes sweet, sour,salty,hot,bitter and astringent and all these elementary tastes are appropriately blended in these preparation to make the food appealing to the palates of people. The recipes are neither excessively hot nor bland. And similarly the sweet preparations are not too much sweet or sour. The Shedrasas (six rasas) are properly balanced to earn the appreciation of the King.
The book titled ‘Sarabhendra PakaSastra’ which is available at SaraswatiMahal Library even today contains more than 100 ThanjavurMaratha royal recipes during the times of Serfojill which are not known to today’s world. This book is based on a very valuable two volume manuscripts in Marathi Preserved in SaraswatiMahal Library. The 1st volume manuscript contains both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food preparations. The manuscripts are said to be recorded or written by some scribes as per the Jabani (Oral statement) of one Narayanan and Butler Venkataswamy during the period of Rajah Serfoji. This work contains in addition to Hindu vegetarian and non-Vegetarian dishes, English type of preparation. The 2nd volume was original hand written manuscript and its pages bear a number of water marks of the year 1816 A.D. The 2nd volume contains every recipe of Thanjavur origin Non vegetarian recipes.
Reference: Late A. KrishnaswamyMahadik former Guest Editor TMSSML
-Cut the mutton into large pieces and boil and cook it well.
-Remove the mutton pieces and shred it by fingers in the shape of saffron flower or thread.
-The fibres of the mutton will be like thread if shreded by hand.
-Mix in it one spoon of salt and grinded paste of chillies, khas-khas seeds in the shreded mutton, mix well and keep aside, place a fry pan on the fire and pour half litre of ghee, and when the ghee gets heated put the mutton shreds and fry them till they turn golden red.
– In the end pour the juice of one lime fruit and mix them together.
The name kesar or kesari indicates and strike as a sweet to many people but it is not a sweet dish. It is a light spicy dish. A kind of mutton receipe which is soft like a sponge and has a delicious Yummiee taste which takes few minutes to prepare and said to be kept for a week and eat.
Swati Thirunal Maharaja of Travancore kept contact with King Serfoji even before he came to the throne and exchanged scholars, musicians, and even their personal compositions. Saint Tyagaraja, Syama Sastrigal, Muthuswami Dikshitar, the musical trinity were the contemporaries of Rajah Serfoji ll. Eminent dance masters like Gangaimuthu, Salapathy, Subbarayan,Mahadana Annachi, Tanjore quartet (four brothers) and Sundari were patronised by Serfoji.
Maharaja Serfoji ll was also called “SARVENDRA RATNADHI PATI” since he was the author of the 72 Volumes of The “SARVENDRA RATNAVLI” a compilation of the immense Knowledge & Wisdom of all the Shastras & Kalaas (Natya Shastra).
King Serfoji ll wrote hundreds of songs in Sanskrit,Telugu,Marathi and all are set to music and dance and recitals.
He is the author of several dance pieces of Alarippu, Jatiswara, Sabadam and Padam. He has composed numberless kavuthuvam,slokavarnam and prabhandas all adopted to Bharatanatyam,Sollukattu,Swaras Jathis and Sathiyas with their respective notations in indian swaras are given for every items with merticulous care.
His collections on bharatanatya dances are the largest in the whole of India. Nowhere in India in one single place can be seen such a huge collections of sampradaya natyam. Such rare types of dances like jakkini, perani, dharupad, desi navadadam and kuravai were in vogue and we have evidence of their being practiced at his court. These type of dances have now become obsolete.
He was also praised by Lord Valentia who visited him in the year 1804 as capable of composing tunes in English. His orchestra comprised of several native and English instruments richly ornamented with diamonds and pearls.
He also composed songs in several Indian languages capable of orchestration in western musical instruments. Maharaja Serfoji also composed tunes in English. He further records as having heard “God save the king” Malbrook played in his orchestra.
His band consist of both European and Indian musical instruments called Tanjore Band.
He composed songs on several Indian languages capable of orchestration in western musical instruments.
Indian tunes and ragas were set to European staff notation fit to be used on his orchestra.They are recorded in several of his music books.
Bharathanatya was then at his peak and several prodigies whose compositions are now considered the best that South India has every produced flourished at his court.
The traditional Bhagavathamela, the oldest type of drama of the south received support at his hand. To the artists of Bhagavathamela of the villages of Saliamangalam, Thepperumanallur, Needamangalam, Serfoji Rajah gave gifts of land and cash.
To many of his chatram Bhagavata melas were attached and provisions were made for them in the chatram.
He patronised poets and scholars at regular intervals.He used to call for vidwat sadas and delighted in hearing extensive poetry, panegrice and discussions on tharka sastra and subjects on music and dance.
Serfoji devoted his attention not only towards revival of serious types of dances but introduced to Thanjavur.Some lighter types of folk dances like modi dance with bag pipes,kanchin naatch and a kind of street dance drama with some adaptations from the kathak dance of north india and dummy horse dance, a kind of folk dance in stills of the nomadix religious mendicants of maharashtra accompanied by sammela kirikatti like twin drum used by gondhalakar of Thanjavur.
Works like kumara Sambava Tika, Mudraraksha Charya, Smriti Iswagraha, Palakappuja and Gaja sastra pradhandam are attributed to his authorship.
Serfoji Rajah invited learned scholars and distinguished poets from different parts of India to adorn his court.He patronised poets and scholars and flooded them with gifts of cash and lands.
He encouraged folk art forms,Such as Kuravanji dance drama,and authored a book called “Devendra Kuravanji”.
Kottaiyur Sivakkolundu Desikar composed the Sarabendra Bhupala Kuravanji, a ‘Natakam’ or dance- drama of the Kuravanji genre. In praise of Serfoji, it was danced by a group of selected Devadasis on festive occasions.
A palace dancer of his period whose name became a legend was Veenabhashini Ammal. She is supposed to have been the Rajamohini or princess in performances of the Kuravanji in Thanjavur. The gurus of the Thanjavur palace also directed the ‘Manmatha Nataka’ in the temple on special occasions. Artists were flourished. His permanent gift to the Tamil tradition is the vast collection of manuscripts housed in the Sarasvati Mahal Library, an adjunct of the Thanjavur palace. Serfoji himself composed many songs for dance, and lent his name as a signature to compositions by court musicians.
Canvas Painting of King Serfoji ll in Saraswati Mahal library of size 10*12 feet.This painting is a copy of the original which was drawn in 1908 and retouched in 1947.This painting was brought from Mukhamba Chatham School at Orthanadu in 1992.
The practice of Jallikattu, also known as Eruthazhuvuthal or Manjuvirattu, is traditionally held annually in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations on Maatu Pongal day (the third day of Pongal festival).
The term ‘Jallikattu‘, originated from the Tamil words Salli and Kattu, referring to silver or gold coins tied to the bulls’ horns.
Jallikattu is believed to have been practice at least 2,500 years ago, after an ancient cave painting was discovered near Madurai, which depicted a lone man trying to control a bull.
Rekhlaw race (Bullock cart racing) and Jallikattu were encouraged during Maratha rule in Thanjavur (1676 to 1855 A.D) where several members of the public participated in the competition.
Maratha King Serfoji ll got a treatise written on the art of Rekhlaw competition called “Hehatula Tumani” in marathi which prescribed rules for the same with details on training and usage during the actual competition. He also got many ideas to work on prescriptions to treat the illness of racing bullocks with experts.
The main objective of Jallikattu is taming the bull. There are 3 variants namely, vati virattu, where the bull after getting released from an enclosure needs to be held on to for a predetermined distance or time to win the prize, veli virattu, participants attempt to subdue the beast in an open ground and vatam manjuvirattu, in which the animal is tied to a 50-foot-long rope with players attempting to overpower it within a specific time limit.
Certain calves are specially reared to grow into strong bulls for Jallikattu, and these animals are trained to not allow strangers to approach them.
Temple bulls are prepared specially for Jallikattu, since they are considered the head of all cattle in a village; special rituals will be performed for them during important days.
Animal welfare organisations like PETA India have protested against Jallikattu since 2004, with the Supreme Court banning it in May 2014. This ban was reversed after the Government of India passed an order exempting it from all performances where bulls cannot be used. But, the SC upheld the ban on 14 January, leading to protests all over Tamil Nadu.
Being a popular tradition, Jallikattu has been shown in many Tamil films over the years including, Virumaandi, Murattu Kaalai, Cheran Pandiyan, Mirugam, Ilami among others. The leading men in these films were depicted as being able to gallantly subdue the bull.
In Jallikattu sport during the rule of Nayak kings of Thanjavur, gold coins, wrapped in a piece of cloth were tied to the horns, and the tackler hung on to the hump of the bull and untied the knot to get at the prize. Jalli/salli means ‘coins’, and kattu is ‘tied’. A small bag of coins was tied to the horns of the bulls, which the players claimed as a prize. The only way you could do that was to embrace the hump of the bull long enough to grab the bag without getting hit.
After the event, tamed weak bulls are used for domestic activities and agriculture, meanwhile the untamable strong bulls are used for breeding the cows.
Thousands of students and youngsters are conducting a rally at Chennai’s Marina Beach and across Tamilnadu to urge the government to restore the practice of Jallikattu.
Source: mid-day.com and Thanjavur Maharaja Serfoji’s Saraswati Mahal Library (TMSSML)
Jijau mata was the mother of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
She was born on January 12, 1598, in the town of Sindhkhed in Maharashtra.
Jijau mata’s father, Lakhuji Jadhavrao, was an eminent Maratha Sardar. Her mother’s name was Malasa Bai.
Jijau mata was married to King Shahaji at a young age. The warrior couple had eight children, of whom six were daughters and two were sons, King Shivaji being one of them.
An influential and determined woman, Jijau mata was a skilled warrior as well as an administrator.
Lal mahal in Pune was built by King Shahaji for Jijau mata and young shivaji.
Jijau mata was an embodiment of self-respect and virtue. She dreamed of a great Maratha empire and her son Shivaji fulfilled her dream.
Jijau mata had a significant impact on King Shivaji’s life. She nurtured a human touch and religious tolerance in him and brought him up as a person who would for his motherland.
She not only ignited the quest of a Maratha empire in King Shivaji, but also witnessed the coronation of her son as he ascended the golden throne in 1674, to become the leader of the legendary Marathas.
King Shivaji owes his greatness to the inspiration of his mother who never wavered in her belief in the greatness of Marathas.
From a loyal wife to a proud mother, Jijau bai was a true reflection of a determined woman.
She is regarded as an ideal mother and her upbringing of Shivaji is a subject of folklore.
She died on 17 June 1674, 12 days after Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’s coronation.
Her Samadhi is built at Pachad village near Rajgad fort.